The laws surrounding Security Certificates have changed over time to adapt to the different security concerns Canada has had to face. While Security Certificates have been a part of Canadian policy since 1977, they were adapted into Canadian immigration law in 1991. It was at this point that the Security Certificates found their current form. During the ten years between 1991 and 2001, ten Security Certificates were issued against individuals in Canada. During this period the Security Intelligence Review Committee reported concerns about Security Certificates. It reflected on the fact that the manner in which evidence was gather was unprofessional and did not follow adequate standards.
Prior to 1991 it was the Security Intelligence Review Committee that heard the cases about Security Certificates. In this court decisions were made on a high probability standard. This meant that there had to be a more than 50% chance that the allegations were true. After 1991 though it was the Federal Court that began hearing cases about Security Certificates. This court basis its decisions on reasonable grounds which means there can be a less that 50% chance that the allegations are true. So even if it seems quite unlikely that the individual is guilty the security certificate will still be upheld. Apparently credibility is not that important when it comes to these types of cases.
Also prior to 1991 the Canadian Security Intelligence Service officer who made the reports could be questioned. This meant that if there were any questions about the report or investigation, the officer could be brought in for clarification. A third party lawyer would be invited to the proceedings and the Security Intelligence Review Committee could ask for a more detailed report.
The Security Certificates allow officials to treat these individuals in a manner that differs from the way they treat Canadians. These are people who do not have a legal right to be in Canada and the Security Certificates pick up on this point and places great emphasis on it. By doing so, they subject these individuals to certain acts and types of treatment that would be unacceptable on the rest of society. For example, it would be expected that the officer who wrote the investigation report for your case, would be present at the court. That way any ambiguity about the report could be explained. With the changes to Security Certificates after 1991 however, this was no longer the case for these individuals.
The act seems to be saying that it is acceptable to treat people unequally. If you are Canadian then you are allowed to be treated with a certain level of respect and with regard to your personal safety and well being. Unfortunately if you are an individual who is simply visiting the country of living here without citizenship, then you will not be accorded these things.